A Chronology of Forced Fluoridation of Community Water Supplies (Part 1: 1855 to 1944)

Gary G. Kohls, MD

In which is revealed the evidence of conspiracies against the public health that were orchestrated by a host of conscienceless, highly profitable multinational corporations, institutes and professional agencies that profited from the forced fluoridation of municipal water supplies, involving ALCOA (Aluminum Company of America), Kaiser Aluminum, Proctor and Gamble, Ethyl Corporation, General Electric, DuPont de Nemours, I. G. Farben, Dow Chemical, Sun Oil Company, General Chemical Company, Mellon Institute, Kettering Laboratory, Department of Defense, U.S. Public Health Service, American Medical Association, American Dental Association, Secretary of the US Treasury (Andrew W. Mellon 1928), master propagandist Edward L. Bernays (nephew to Sigmund Freud), and others.
This abridged and edited list is obtained from a 21,000 word compilation that can be accessed at: http://curezone.com/dental/fluoride.asp

Compiled by Val Valerian
“Fluoridation is not a Communist Plot; it is an attempt by industry to camouflage their deadliest pollutant, with government officials and Madison Avenue advertisers beating the drums. The fluoridation empire is like a castle built on quicksand.” Gladys Caldwell, author, “Fluoridation and Truth Decay”, 1974.

1855 Smelters in Freiburg, Germany first paid damages to neighbors injured by fluoride emissions. (See 1893)

1893 The smelters in Freiburg, Germany paid out 80,000 marks in damages for fluorine contamination injuries and 644,000 marks for permanent relief. (See 1855, 1900, 1907).

1900 The existence of the smelting industry in Germany and Great Britain is threatened by successful lawsuits for fluorine damage and by burdensome laws and regulations.

1907 The smelters in Freiburg, Germany (see 1893) are identified as the cause of crippled cattle in the area since 1877, and fluorides are identified as the culprit.

1916 The first evidence of brown mottling of teeth is reported in the United States, and would be eventually found to be caused by fluorides in water.

1922 Aluminum production (along with production of toxic by-product sodium fluoride) increases. Aluminum cookware is mass introduced in the US, beginning the gradual accumulation of aluminum in the brains of Americans. Additional aluminum is injected into society in “antacids” and toothpaste tubes, which aggravate the action of toxic fluorides.

1928 The equivalent of the U.S. Public Health Service is under the jurisdiction of Treasury Secretary Andrew W. Mellon, a founder and major stockholder of ALCOA aluminum, a major producer of toxic fluoride wastes. Mellon would step down from control of the Public Health in 1931.


1928 Edward L. Bernays, nephew to Sigmund Freud, writes the book Propaganda, in which he explains the structure of the mechanism which controls the public mind, and how it is manipulated by those who wish to create public acceptance for a particular idea or commodity. Says Bernays, “those who manipulate this unseen mechanism of society constitute an invisible government which is the true ruling power of our country. Our minds are molded, our tastes are formed, largely by men we have never heard of.” Bernays represents another connection to Germany and would be essential in the fluoride campaign in the United States. Wrote Bernay’s, “if you can influence group leaders, either with or without their conscious cooperation, you automatically influence the group which they sway.” (See Bernay’s, 1947, and the fluoride campaign).

1930 Kettering Laboratory is founded from gifts from Ethyl Corporation, General Electric and DuPont (all who have interlocking relationships with I.G. Farben in Germany) to “investigate chemical hazards in American industrial operations” under contract, with provision that research “shall not be released to the public without the consent of the contracting company.” During the mid-20th century, Kettering dominated the medical literature on the toxicology of fluorides, but information was not released into the public domain.

1931 A considerable portion of Kettering Laboratory’s facilities are dedicated to the study of fluorides. Under contract, the studies are not releasable to the public. (See also 1939, Mellon Institute)
1931 Three independent groups of scientists determine that fluoride in the water is the cause of dental mottling. Research teams from ALCOA Aluminum (who have fluorides as a hazardous by-product of aluminum manufacture) and the University of Arizona. Also shown by North African investigators and others. Dr. Gerald Cox of the Mellon Institute, owners of ALCOA, would later solve the expensive disposal problem with toxic fluorides by convincing others that it could be dumped in the public water supply as a “preventative” for tooth decay.
1931 Public Health Service dentist H. Trendley Dean is dispatched by ALCOA founder Andrew Mellon to certain remote towns in the Western U.S. where water wells have a naturally high concentration of calcium fluorides. Dean’s mission would be to find out how much fluoride people could physically tolerate before obvious visible damage to their teeth. Dean publishes a purposely skewed and deceptive study which purports to show that at 1ppm, fluorides result in the “reduction of tooth decay”. (See Gerald Cox, 1939)

1931 The Mellon Institute is ALCOA’s Pittsburgh research lab.

1931 From 1931 to 1939, the U.S. Public Health Service seeks to remove fluorides from water supplies because of endemic mottled teeth. ALCOA’s fluoride proposals have not been bought into by the public or government yet.

1931 I.G. Farben and Alcoa Aluminum sign Alted Agreement pooling patents, which would continue through 1939 and beyond. I.G. Farben complex begins large contributions to fund Nazi cause.

1937 U.S. Public Health Service publishes material indicating that fluoride concentrations in many U.S. cities varied between 0.6 ppm to 8.0 ppm. A concentration of 0.9 ppm means that over 10% of children have mottled teeth and tooth deformities.

1937 A clinical hygienic study by K. Roholm in 1937, “Fluoride Intoxication”, proposes that fluorides cross the placental barrier into the fetus. (70). This realization is echoed in 1951 by an M.D. and chemist from the University of Oregon Medical School.

1938 Dr. Wallace Armstrong and P.J.Brekhus at the University of Minnesota Department of Biochemistry publish a study in which they falsely claimed that the enamel of sound teeth had a significantly greater fluoride content than the enamel of teeth with cavities. Armstrong was to admit later that these results were false. In a follow-up study in 1963, Dr. Armstrong found no difference in the fluoride contents of the enamel of sound or decayed teeth.
1938 The University of Mexico Bulletin, August 1, 1938, in an article entitled “Menace of Fluorine to Health”, states “Solutions of sodium fluoride with a fluoride content as low as one part in 15 million may inhibit the action of the lipase (pancreatic juice) as much as 50 percent.”

1939 The ALCOA company, the world’s largest producer of sodium fluoride, transfers its technology under the Alted Agreement to Germany. Dow Chemical follows suit.

1939 ALCOA-sponsored biochemist Gerald J. Cox fluoridates rats in his lab and mysteriously concludes that “fluoride reduces cavities”. He makes a public proposal that the U.S. should fluoridate its water supplies. Cox begins to tour the United States, stumping for fluoridation.

1939 Scientists at I.G. Farben prepare the first sample of fluorinated nerve gas Sarin.

1939 On September 29, 1939, Mellon Institute scientist Gerald J. Cox plays a major role in the promotion of fluoridation by saying “the present trend toward removal of fluorides from food and water may need reversal. Water engineers had been recommending a maximum allowable fluoride contaminant level of 0.1 part per million (ppm), maintaining a tenfold margin of safety. (When fluorides were eventually added to water through corporate pressure, that safety factor would be thrown out and the level raised tenfold beyond the engineering recommendations in 1939, when fluoride was properly recognized as a toxic contaminant. Note: Mellon Institute was founded by Andrew and Richard Mellon, former owners of ALCOA Aluminum, plagued by disposal problems of toxic fluoride by products. ALCOA also had a relationship with I.G. Farben in Germany)

1939 U.S. Public Health Service regulations state “the presence of fluorides in excess of 1 ppm shall constitute rejection of the water supply.” (Yet, when water fluoridation is instituted, levels are set at a minimum of 1 ppm)

1939 Volume 9 Report to the House Un-American Activities Committee delves deeply into the alleged use of fluoridation to keep the American people docile, so they would accept the changing of their system of government to a socialist state.

1940 “Fluoride inhibits neuromuscular activity”. Ref: Russo, G. Att. Acad. Sci. Nat.., 1940.

1940 Soviet concentration camps maintained by fluoride administration to inmates to decrease resistance to authority and induce physical deterioration.

1942 Germany becomes the world’s largest producer of aluminum (and Sodium Fluoride). Fluoride is used in the concentration camps to render the prisoners docile and inhibit the questioning of authority.

1943 Researchers from the US Public Health Service examine the health of residents of Bartlett, Texas to see if the 8ppm fluoride in the drinking water was affecting their health. It was checked again in 1953. They find that the death rate in Bartlett was three times higher than a neighboring town which contained 0.4 ppm fluoride.
1943 The Journal of the American Medical Association on September 18, 1943, contains an article, “Chronic Fluorine Intoxication”, which states, “fluorides are general protoplasmic poisons, changing the permeability of the cell membrane by inhibiting certain enzymes. The exact mechanisms of such actions, it was said, are obscure. The sources of fluorine intoxication are drinking water containing 1ppm or more of fluorine, fluorine compounds used as insecticidal sprays for fruits and vegetables (cryolite and barium fluorosilicate) and the mining and conversion of phosphate rock to superphosphate, which is used as a fertilizer. That process alone releases approximately 25,000 tons of pure fluorine into the atmosphere annually. Other sources of fluorine intoxication is from the fluorides used in the smelting of many metals, such as steel and aluminum, and in the production of glass, enamel and brick.”

1944 “Even at 1ppm, fluoride in drinking water poisons cattle, horses and sheep” (Moules, G.R., Water Pollution Research and Summary of Current Literature, 1944.

1944 Oscar Ewing is put on the payroll of the Aluminum Company of America ALCOA), as an attorney, at an annual salary of $750,000. In 1947, Ewing was made Federal Security Agency Administrator, with the announcement that he was taking a big cut in salary. The US Public Health Service, then a division of the FSA, comes under the command of Ewing, and he begins to vigorously promote fluoridation nationwide. Ref: May 25-27 Hearings before the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce. A by-product of aluminum manufacture is toxic sodium fluoride. Ewings public relations strategist for the fluoride campaign was the nephew of Sigmund Freud, Edward L. Bernays. Bernays conducts a public relations campaign to promote fluorine ingestion by applying Freudian theory to induce public acceptance. It was one of Bernays most successful campaigns.