July 14, 2014 is the 225th Anniversary of the Storming of the Bastille and the Beginning of the French Revolution of 1789

Gary G. Kohls, MD

“Rise up, you unfortunates of the city, workmen without work, street stragglers sleeping under bridges, prowlers along the highways, beggars without food or shelter, vagabonds, cripples and tramps…” Jean-Paul Marat

A couple of years ago, while paging through one of my many books on European fascism and Adolf Hitler (The Psychopathic God, written by Robert G. L. Waite) I ran across a meaningful quote from a French Revolution-era author, diplomat and orator named Honore Mirabeau. Mirabeau had written about his experiences while visiting the kingdom of Prussia (the book was entitled A Secret History of the Court of Berlin). In the book, he commented:
“Prussia is not a country that has an Army; it is an Army that has a country”

That quote piqued my interest, so I did some research into the realities in which Mirabeau found himself. My initial thought was to write a Duty to Warn column about Prussian militarism and the alarming similarities to every empire’s version of a police state (including the American empire), but instead I decided to write about the French Revolution - discussing the similarities with the 1789 experience and the early phases of the current revolution going on around the world in the Occupy Wall Street and Arab Spring Uprising movements. There are many lessons to be learned from the French Revolution. Our future oppressors know those lessons well, and we future victims need to catch up with them.
Honore Mirabeau was one of the few voices of moderation and compromise during the early phases of the eventual mass slaughter that characterized the French Revolution, which, if we try to recall our inadequate high school world history books, technically began in 1789. The French Revolution was partially inspired by the American Revolution (which technically occurred a decade earlier). Both revolutions shook the complacent world of European kings and queens, not to mention dictators and assorted autocrats all around the world.
Honore Mirabeau was one of the political leaders in the early stages of the revolt in Paris, a time when nobody had yet decided what to do with King Louis XVI and his kingdom. Mirabeau and his wise counsel died too soon - in 1791, before the Terror years began - of either poisoning or heart complications from what his doctors thought was pericarditis.

The Storming of the Bastille – July 14, 1789

The Revolution was a mass movement of the 99 % against the tyranny and oppression of the One Percenters of that polarized time in world history, which included the French monarchy, the aristocracy, the Roman Catholic clergy and all the oppressive economic, police state and politically and socially unjust structures that usually go with those realities.
Mirabeau earnestly searched for some sort of non-violent compromise between the doomed members of the parasitic, predatory, aristocratic ruling classes (and their figure-head king and his influential queen Marie Antoinette) and the many political factions that were jockeying for position in the power vacuum that followed the start of the revolution with the symbolic storming of the Bastille on July 14, 1789.
The Bastille was an infamous prison that was the hated symbol of all that was oppressive about the militarily-enforced, economically-oppressive, religiously sanctioned, totalitarian regime of Louis XVI.
One could easily compare the Bastille to the seats of dictatorial power in the various Arab Spring nations in the past few years (or to the White House, Congress, the Supreme Court or Wall Street in the past few decades). The over-privileged tyrants mentioned above were logical targets of a long-suffering, hopeless, malnourished, impoverished, criminalise and increasingly enraged people who had little to say in the national political process and didn’t trust those in positions of authority (because they had been repeatedly lied to in the past).
All of the victimized French peasants had endured taxation without representation, job and food insecurity, indebtedness from predatory lenders, arbitrary arrests, and extra-judicial imprisonments. All had suffered exploitation, police harassment and harsh or unfair punishment, even the death penalty, for crimes that were minor or nonexistent.
Unfortunately, however it was undisciplined mob violence that kick-started the French Revolution, which eventually turned into anarchy and civil war and the predictable retaliatory responses of various power factions, often employing hired thugs and mercenary soldiers to commit serial atrocities against one another.
Violence and the desire for revenge is a very human (but not a very spiritual) response to oppression. It is quite understandable however, for the gap between the rich and the poor in that era was vast and widening, and the 99% who lived at the poverty level were constantly food and job insecure, with no access to affordable health care, the growing of their own food or being paid a livable wage.
The infamous pamphleteer (and eventually one of the doomed dictators) Jean-Paul Marat was an angry, pro-violent idealist who was also a single-minded power-seeker. When he eventually attained absolute political power, he became a psychopathic mass murderer. In one of his early pamphlets (1789), he wrote:
“Rise up, you unfortunates of the city, workmen without work, street stragglers sleeping under bridges, prowlers along the highways, beggars without food or shelter, vagabonds, cripples and tramps…cut the thumbs off the aristocrats who conspire against you; split the tongues of the priests who have preached servitude.”
Marat’s quote reminds me of a phrase I once heard: “The French Revolution will be complete when the last priest is strangled with the guts of the last lawyer.” I don’t recall exactly where I heard that one, and I hasten to add that I don’t agree with it. It is, however, easy understand where the sentiment came from.

“Liberty, Equality, Fraternity or Death”

Most of us who espouse the courageous, active nonviolent resistance to oppression of the type modeled and taught by Jesus, Gandhi and Martin Luther King will resonate with the first part of Marat’s quote but will be appalled by the last part. The quote points out very nicely, however, what was one of the grave mistakes of the French Revolution, and that was the willingness to use homicidal violence to attain the goals of the famous motto of the revolution: “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity”. (Actually the original motto was “Liberty, Equality, Fraternity or Death” but the “Death” part was judiciously dropped during the September Massacres, the Parisian Terror, the civil war and the mass beheadings – the latter thanks to the “humane” invention of French physician Dr. J. I. Guillotine).
Marat’s apparent solidarity with the victims of an oppressive system was actually an incitement to mob violence and the overthrow of the existing system by those long-suffering people who genuinely yearned to be free. Marat miscalculated when he led the revolution in a violent direction. He had it wrong but, despite France being a Christian nation (Roman Catholicism was the state religion), nobody, even the clergy in that era, understood the ethical teachings or the practicality of the nonviolent Jesus movement of early Christianity.

“Power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely”

Britain’s Lord Acton was similarly appalled when he wrote about the disastrous end results of the French Revolution. He authored the insightful and very truthful dictum that says: “Power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely.” And that dictum applies to economic power, political power, military power, police power, sexual power, racial power, but not the power of the love that Jesus, Gandhi and King taught and modeled.
The French commoners knew all about crushing poverty, but they, like Marat, also knew who were the exploiters, the predators and the undeserving, over-privileged ones who were their overlords. They were the easily identifiable ones who were living a life of excess luxury wealth, living off the blood, sweat and tears of those just struggling to survive.
The well-fed elites in France were obviously living parasitically off the labor of the masses. Their wealth came from fees and taxes that were disproportionately assessed onto the lower classes. Those taxes were often not paid at all by the clergy and the wealthy elites, similar to what is happening today.
The moneyed classes had been observed by the lower classes to do a lot of partying, financial speculating and theatre-going and often had no visible means of support other than their connections to the crown. They spent a lot of their leisure time counting their money, flaunting their wealth, managing their estates, shooting trophy animals on their private hunting grounds, drinking, philandering and otherwise enjoying their leisure time.
Even institutions like the wealthy and powerful Catholic church and its bishops were generally despised by the masses, as the Marat and the anonymous quote above makes clear. The less-than-useless aristocracy, the hereditary nobility and the wealthy land-owners were equally hated, as were the greedy bankers and the investor classes that were always creating economic bubbles that eventually burst, usually hurting the innocent more than the guilty.
Other over-privileged groups that were dependent on the good graces of the king included the legal profession (lawyers and judges) and the King’s military, security forces and police establishments. They were the ones who enforced the unjust laws and kept the increasingly restless people under control. The poor were derogatorily referred to as sans culottes (literally “without breeches”) and they feared the jackboot on their necks, the police baton on their skulls and the “knock on the door at midnight”.
But they were eager to get up from under the repression and demanded their rights, articulated so beautifully in the 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, a precursor to the Universal Declaration of the Rights of Man, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on December 10, 1948, a document largely ignored by many of the signatories, including the United States, particularly since the gutting of the US Constitution with the Cheney/Bush-era Patriot Acts and Homeland Security Act and the Obama-era Citizens United ruling by the pro-corporate, anti-democracy 5-4 Supreme Court.

Active Nonviolent Resistance to Evil, the Most Important Lesson to be Learned by American 99 Percenters

There are numerous lessons to be learned from revolutions of the past, but the most important one for our time is already being understood and implemented; and that is the truth that courageous, active, nonviolent revolutions in the mode of Jesus, Gandhi and King are the ones that the powerful and the well-armed find most difficult to overcome. The agents provocateur, infiltrators and the armed mercenary thugs that are sent by corporations or the government to disrupt nonviolent demonstrations are signs of desperation among the ruling elite.
These enforcers of the establishment (that wants the gravy train to keep on running smoothly) desperately want to avoid criminal indictments or jail time. They prefer to be confronted by violent resistance from the masses. They know how to deal with lethal violence. They can open fire, claiming that the protestors drew “first blood”. They have all the newfangled, high tech weapons systems and tactics that can figuratively or literally “mow down” or “disappear” protestors.
But the corporate and government enforcers are confused and uncertain as to how to deal with nonviolent direct action, especially when it is strengthened by the new social media (cell phones that can both communicate and take pictures, FaceBook, Twitter and the internet). Our overlords may not dare to use the classical police state methods of fascist-type crowd control. And they know that they do not have the capacity or the resources to arrest everybody or imprison everybody. Leaderless, grassroots, mass movements can’t be decapitated or totally disappeared.
What the world needs now, and what the Occupy Wall Street and Green Party movements are wisely providing, is not a movement led by a single major prophet that can be easily silenced. What the world is seeing and applauding today are movements led by a million minor prophets that are too numerous to by dealt with by violent police repression.

Vive la revolution!
Dr Kohls is a retired physician who practiced holistic, non-drug mental health care for the last decade of his career. He is involved in peace, nonviolence and justice issues.